# Expanded Accounting Equation Explanation and Examples

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For example, an increase to revenue can increase net income on the income statement, increase retained earnings on the statement of retained earnings, and change the distribution of stockholder’s equity on the balance sheet. This may be difficult to understand where these changes have occurred without revenue recognized individually in this expanded equation. This expansion of the equity section allows a business to see the impact to equity from changes to revenues and expenses, and to owner investments and payouts. For example, an increase to revenue can increase net income on the income statement, increase retained earnings on the statement of retained earnings, and change the distribution of shareholder’s equity on the balance sheet.

1. Recall that the basic components of even the simplest accounting
system are accounts and a general ledger.
2. Therefore, the company must record the usage of electricity, as well as the liability to pay the utility bill, in May.
3. Stated more technically, retained earnings are a business’s cumulative earnings since the creation of the business minus any dividends that it has declared or paid since its creation.
4. For another example, consider the balance sheet for Apple, Inc., as published in the company’s quarterly report on July 28, 2021.

For example, Lynn Sanders purchases a piece of equipment for \$40,000. She believes this is a bargain and perceives the value to be more at \$60,000 in the current market. Even though Lynn https://intuit-payroll.org/ feels the equipment is worth \$60,000, she may only record the cost she paid for the equipment of \$40,000. Let’s look at an example of the expanded version of the accounting equation.

## What Is the Basic Accounting Equation?

All three components of the accounting equation appear in the balance sheet, which reveals the financial position of a business as of the date stated on the document. First, however, in Define and Examine the Initial Steps in the Accounting Cycle we look at how the role of identifying and analyzing transactions fits into the continuous process known as the accounting cycle. The expanded accounting equation is a form of the basic accounting equation that includes the distinct components of owner’s equity, such as dividends, shareholder capital, revenue, and expenses. The expanded equation is used to compare a company’s assets with greater granularity than provided by the basic equation. These retained earnings are what the company holds onto at the end of a period to reinvest in the business, after any distributions to ownership occur.

It provides greater detail on the different sections of shareholders’ equity, allowing companies to see how their profits are used. Unearned revenue represents a customer’s advanced payment for a product or service that has yet to be provided by the company. Since the company has not yet provided the product or service, it cannot recognize the customer’s payment as revenue, according to the revenue recognition principle. The company owing the product or service creates the liability to the customer.

Owners/shareholders can invest by contributing cash or some other asset. Equipment examples include desks, chairs, and computers; anything that has a long-term value to the business that is used in the office. Equipment is considered a long-term asset, meaning you can use it for more than one accounting period (a year for example). Equipment will lose value over time, in a process called depreciation. You will learn more about this topic in Chapter 3, and Accounting, Business and Society.

Stated more technically, retained earnings are a company’s cumulative earnings since the creation of the company minus any dividends that it has declared or paid since its creation. One tricky point to remember is that retained earnings are not classified as assets. Instead, they are a component of the stockholder’s equity account, placing it on the right side of the accounting difference between reserve and provision equation. First, however, in
Define and Examine the Initial Steps in the Accounting
Cycle we look at how the role of identifying and analyzing
transactions fits into the continuous process known as the
accounting cycle. These retained earnings are what the company holds onto at the end
of a period to reinvest in the business, after any distributions to
ownership occur.

## 2: Summarizing transactions in the expanded accounting equation

There is a hybrid owner’s investment labeled as
preferred stock that is a combination of debt and equity (a concept
covered in more advanced accounting courses). The company will
issue shares of common stock to represent stockholder ownership. You will learn more about common stock in
Corporation Accounting. A notes payable is similar to accounts payable in that the
company owes money and has not yet paid. Some key differences are
that the contract terms are usually longer than one accounting
period, interest is included, and there is typically a more
formalized contract that dictates the terms of the transaction. A notes payable is similar to accounts payable in that the company owes money and has not yet paid.

## Expanded Accounting Equation: Definition, Formula, How It Works

The expanded accounting equation does not elaborate on the assets or liabilities sections of the basic accounting equation, as those components are not immediately affected by changes in income. The accounting equation emphasizes a basic idea in business; that is, businesses need assets in order to operate. Recall that the basic components of even the simplest accounting system are accounts and a general ledger. Accounts shows all the changes made to assets, liabilities, and equity—the three main categories in the accounting equation.

Thus, all of these entities have a slightly different expanded equation. Equipment examples include desks, chairs, and computers; anything that has a long-term value to the company that is used in the office. The separate entity concept prescribes that a business may only report activities on financial statements that are specifically related to company operations, not those activities that affect the owner personally. This concept is called the separate entity concept because the business is considered an entity separate and apart from its owner(s). Cash includes paper currency as well as coins, checks, bank
accounts, and money orders.

«Members’ capital» and «owners’ capital» are commonly used for partnerships and sole proprietorships, respectively, while «distributions» and «withdrawals» are substitute nomenclature for «dividends.» So in order to balance the equation, one asset must increase (Car) and other must decrease (Bank). \$10,000 of cash (asset) will be received from the bank but the business must also record an equal amount representing the fact that the loan (liability) will eventually need to be repaid. In order to record a transaction, we need a system of monetary measurement, or a monetary unit by which to value the transaction.

The accounts may receive numbers using the
system presented in
Table 3.2. The accounts are presented in the chart of accounts in “accounting equation order”, beginning with assets, then liabilities, then the accounts that comprise equity — contributed capital, dividends, revenues, and expenses. Additional numbers starting with six and continuing might be used in large merchandising and manufacturing companies. The information in the chart of accounts is the foundation of a well-organized accounting system. The dividend could be paid with cash or be a distribution of more company stock to current shareholders.

We also know that the employment activities performed by an employee of a company are considered an expense, in this case a salary expense. In baseball, and other sports around the world, players’ contracts are consistently categorized as assets that lose value over time (they are amortized). Let’s say there were a credit of \$4,000 and a debit of \$6,000 in the Accounts Payable account. Since Accounts Payable increases on the credit side, one would expect a normal balance on the credit side. However, the difference between the two figures in this case would be a debit balance of \$2,000, which is an abnormal balance.

Some common
examples of assets are cash, accounts receivable, inventory,
supplies, prepaid expenses, notes receivable, equipment, buildings,
machinery, and land. Some common examples of assets are cash, accounts receivable, inventory, supplies, prepaid expenses, notes receivable, equipment, buildings, machinery, and land. Assets are resources a business owns that have an economic value. The expanded accounting equation can allow analysts to better look into the company’s break-down of shareholder’s equity. The revenues and expenses show the change in net income from period to period. Stockholder transactions can be seen through contributed capital and dividends.